Anıttepe, Rasattepe olarak da bilinir.
- Tür: Anıt Mezar
- Tema: Cumhuriyetin 100 Yapısı, İkinci Ulusal Mimarlık Akımı
- Kültür: Cumhuriyet
- Yüzyıl: 20. yy
- Bölge: Türkiye, İç Anadolu Bölgesi, Ankara, Çankaya, Yücetepe
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|Location||Çankaya, Ankara, Turkey|
|Designer||Emin Halid Onat and Ahmet Orhan Arda|
|Material||Concrete, travertine and marble|
|Length||57.35 m (188.2 ft)|
|Width||41.65 m (136.6 ft)|
|Height||27 m (89 ft)|
|Beginning date||9 October 1944|
|Completion date||1 September 1953|
|Opening date||1 September 1953|
|Dedicated to||Mustafa Kemal Atatürk|
Anıtkabir is a complex located in the Çankaya district of Ankara, which includes the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Designed by Emin Onat and Orhan Arda, the construction of Anıtkabir began in 1944 and was completed in 1953. In addition to the mausoleum building, the complex consists of various structures and monuments, as well as a wooded area known as the Peace Park.
After Atatürk's death on November 10, 1938, it was announced that his remains would be kept at the Ankara Ethnography Museum until a mausoleum could be constructed in Ankara. To determine the location for the mausoleum, a commission was established by the government. Based on a report prepared by the commission, it was decided during a meeting of the Republican People's Party parliamentary group on January 17, 1939, that the structure would be built on Rasattepe. Following this decision, expropriation work began on the relevant land, and an international design competition was launched on March 1, 1941, to determine the structure's design. After the competition ended on March 2, 1942, the evaluations resulted in the decision to implement the project of Emin Onat and Orhan Arda with some modifications, and construction began with a groundbreaking ceremony on October 9, 1944. The construction was carried out in four stages, and due to some problems and delays, it was completed in October 1953, later than originally planned. During the construction, changes were made to the project. On November 10, 1953, Atatürk's remains were transferred to Anıtkabir in a ceremony. Cemal Gürsel, who was buried in 1966, and the remains of eleven people who were buried between 1960 and 1963, were removed from Anıtkabir in 1988. İsmet İnönü's grave has been located at Anıtkabir since 1973.
The main building in the complex is the mausoleum, which includes Atatürk's symbolic sarcophagus in the section known as the Hall of Honor, while his actual tomb is located in the lower level of the building. The entrance to the complex is through a tree-lined avenue called the Lions' Road, which leads to the ceremony square. The mausoleum is situated on one side of this square, surrounded by colonnades, while the exit from the complex is located on the opposite side of the square along the path of the Lions' Road. The complex features ten towers at the four corners of the Lions' Road, at the exit of the ceremony square, and at the corners of the square, as well as two sculpture groups and the Atatürk and Independence War Museum. All of these structures, collectively known as the Monument Block, are surrounded by a wooded area called Peace Park. The structures in the complex are made of reinforced concrete and feature surfaces and floors made of various types of marble and travertine, as well as decorative elements created using relief, mosaic, fresco, and carving techniques. The Neoclassical style of the Second National Architecture Movement features elements inspired by the Hittite, Greek, Seljuk, and Ottoman cultures that have dominated the region now known as Turkey throughout history.
The responsibility for all services and tasks at Anıtkabir belongs to the Turkish Armed Forces General Staff, and events to be held here are regulated by law. Official commemoration ceremonies are held at Anıtkabir on national holidays in Turkey and on the anniversary of Atatürk's death on November 10, organized by the government. In addition to these, ceremonies are also organized by individuals and representatives of legal entities who are included in the state protocol. Anıtkabir is a place that is occasionally visited and official ceremonies are held at the site by foreign government officials during their official visits to Turkey.
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